The Bosnian War began inas a result of the breakup of Yugoslavia.
For more information, please see the full notice. After the destruction of the Second World War, the nations of Europe struggled to rebuild their economies and ensure their security.
The former required a massive influx of aid to help the war-torn landscapes re-establish industries and produce food, and the latter required assurances against a resurgent Germany or incursions from the Soviet Union.
The United States viewed an economically strong, rearmed, and integrated Europe as vital to the prevention of communist expansion across the continent.
As a result, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed a program of large-scale economic aid to Europe.
The resulting European Recovery Program, or Marshall Plannot only facilitated European economic integration but promoted the idea of shared interests and cooperation between the United States and Europe.
Soviet refusal either to participate in the Marshall Plan or to allow its satellite states in Eastern Europe to accept the economic assistance helped to reinforce the growing division between east and west in Europe.
In —, a series of events caused the nations of Western Europe to become concerned about their physical and political security and the United States to become more closely involved with European affairs.
Truman to assert that the United States would provide economic and military aid to both countries, as well as to any other nation struggling against an attempt at subjugation.
A Soviet-sponsored coup in Czechoslovakia resulted in a communist government coming to power on the borders of Germany. Attention also focused on elections in Italy as the communist party had made significant gains among Italian voters.
Furthermore, events in Germany also caused concern. The occupation and governance of Germany after the war had long been disputed, and in mid, Soviet premier Joseph Stalin chose to test Western resolve by implementing a blockade against West Berlin, which was then under joint U.
This Berlin Crisis brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of conflict, although a massive airlift to resupply the city for the duration of the blockade helped to prevent an outright confrontation.
These events caused U. To counter this possible turn of events, the Truman Administration considered the possibility of forming a European-American alliance that would commit the United States to bolstering the security of Western Europe.
Signing of the Brussels Treaty The Western European countries were willing to consider a collective security solution. In response to increasing tensions and security concerns, representatives of several countries of Western Europe gathered together to create a military alliance.
Their treaty provided collective defense; if any one of these nations was attacked, the others were bound to help defend it. At the same time, the Truman Administration instituted a peacetime draft, increased military spending, and called upon the historically isolationist Republican Congress to consider a military alliance with Europe.
Vandenburg proposed a resolution suggesting that the President seek a security treaty with Western Europe that would adhere to the United Nations charter but exist outside of the Security Council where the Soviet Union held veto power.
In spite of general agreement on the concept behind the treaty, it took several months to work out the exact terms. Congress had embraced the pursuit of the international alliance, but it remained concerned about the wording of the treaty.
The nations of Western Europe wanted assurances that the United States would intervene automatically in the event of an attack, but under the U. Constitution the power to declare war rested with Congress.
Negotiations worked toward finding language that would reassure the European states but not obligate the United States to act in a way that violated its own laws. While the European nations argued for individual grants and aid, the United States wanted to make aid conditional on regional coordination.
A third issue was the question of scope. The Brussels Treaty signatories preferred that membership in the alliance be restricted to the members of that treaty plus the United States. Together, these countries held territory that formed a bridge between the opposite shores of the Atlantic Ocean, which would facilitate military action if it became necessary.
President Truman inspecting a tank produced under the Mutual Defense Assistance Program The result of these extensive negotiations was the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty in In this agreement, the United States, Canada, Belgium, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, and the United Kingdom agreed to consider attack against one an attack against all, along with consultations about threats and defense matters.
This collective defense arrangement only formally applied to attacks against the signatories that occurred in Europe or North America; it did not include conflicts in colonial territories.
After the treaty was signed, a number of the signatories made requests to the United States for military aid. Soon after the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the outbreak of the Korean War led the members to move quickly to integrate and coordinate their defense forces through a centralized headquarters.
The North Korean attack on South Korea was widely viewed at the time to be an example of communist aggression directed by Moscow, so the United States bolstered its troop commitments to Europe to provide assurances against Soviet aggression on the European continent.
West German entry led the Soviet Union to retaliate with its own regional alliance, which took the form of the Warsaw Treaty Organization and included the Soviet satellite states of Eastern Europe as members.
The threat of this form of response was meant to serve as a deterrent against Soviet aggression on the continent. Although formed in response to the exigencies of the developing Cold War, NATO has lasted beyond the end of that conflict, with membership even expanding to include some former Soviet states.
It remains the largest peacetime military alliance in the world.Transcript of The Cold War: NATO versus The Warsaw Pact. The Cold War: NATO versus The Warsaw Pact By: Giulia, Mattea, and Lauryn but happened due to conflict. Communist nations did not allow human freedom which resulted in the United Schoolwork Helper.
() “The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): Historical Significance. NATO and the Warsaw Pact: intrabloc conflicts / edited by Mary Ann Heiss and S. Victor Papacosma. p. cm. — (New studies in U.S.
foreign relations) Includes index. isbn (hbk.: alk. paper) ∞ 1. North Atlantic Treaty Organization—History—20th century. 2. . North Atlantic Treaty Organization In , the United States, Canada, and ten European nations formed this military mutual-defense pact.
In , the Soviet Union countered NATO with the formation of the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance among those nations within its own sphere of influence.
The immediate occasion for the Warsaw Pact was the Paris agreement among the Western powers admitting West Germany to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. The Warsaw Pact was, however, the first step in a more systematic plan to strengthen the Soviet hold over its satellites, a program undertaken by the Soviet leaders Nikita .
While the spotlight was mainly on the two Superpowers, the United States of America and the Soviet Union, the European and Canadian forces within NATO, and all those nations within the Warsaw Pact, are also important and cannot be ignored.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), military alliance established by the North Atlantic Treaty (also called the Washington Treaty) of April 4, , which sought to create a counterweight to Soviet armies stationed in central and eastern Europe after World War II.