Hollywood North One thing I have learned is that racism, as disgusting as it is, happens in many sports, and hockey is not immune. They do not just happen in one place or with one group of fans
The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Conceived and designed the experiments: Received Apr 8; Accepted Jun 6. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Athletes participating in contact sports such as ice hockey are exposed to a high risk of suffering a concussion.
We determined whether recent rule changes regulating contact to the head introduced in —11 and —12 have been effective in reducing the incidence of concussion in the National Hockey League NHL.
A retrospective study of NHL and OHL games for the —10 to —12 seasons was performed using official game records and team injury reports in addition to other media sources. Concussion incidence over the 3 seasons analyzed was 5.
When injuries described as concussion-like or suspicious of concussion were included, incidences rose to 8. We conclude that rules regulating bodychecking to the head did not reduce the number of players suffering concussions during NHL regular season play and that further changes or stricter enforcement of existing rules may be required to minimize the risk of players suffering these injuries.
Introduction In Canada, there were 5, hospitalizations due to winter sports and recreation activities in —11, including head injuries . Mandatory helmet use in professional sport decreases incidence of head and neck injuries . However, protective equipment may not specifically protect against concussion .
Recent proposals to reduce concussions in sport have recommended regulating game play in order to reduce the number of direct impacts to the head, a more difficult change to introduce  — . In ice hockey, players use a strategy known as bodychecking to slow or stop an opposing player.
Bodychecking is a frequent cause of head injury and concussion in hockey and concussion rates are higher in youth leagues that allow bodychecking  — .
A ban on bodychecking has been proposed in youth hockey however, aggressive play is seen as a selling point in professional leagues . In the National Hockey League NHLrecent bodychecking incidents causing devastating injuries to a number of high profile players have drawn increased media attention to the importance of concussion prevention.
Sponsors have called upon the NHL to address injury risks  and insurance companies are concerned about continuing to compensate teams for salary costs lost due to concussed players .
The NHL has opted to introduce rules regulating bodychecking to the head in an attempt to improve player safety. Prior to the —11 season, bodychecking another player with the head as the primary point of contact was legal. This rule was modified for the —12 season to encompass all hits to the head, with a degree of discretion allowed on the part of the referees in determining whether the contacted player put himself at risk .
This study investigated concussions occurring in the —10, —11 and —12 regular seasons in order to evaluate the effect of recent NHL rule changes regulating bodychecking. We also analyzed data from the Ontario Hockey League OHL to determine the concussion incidence in an elite league where any hit to the head of another player, intentional or not, has been illegal since the —7 season .
We used injury reports from teams to determine the number of concussions, similar to a previous study on NHL players up to the — season . The rates of violent actions and the enforcement of head checking rules in each league were determined by analyzing penalties called during game play.
This analysis involved NHL and OHL players who participated in at least one regular season game in any of the three seasons. Players must be at least 18 years old to participate.
The OHL is a major junior hockey league composed of 20 Canadian and American teams playing a 68 game regular season. No Research Ethics Board approval was required for this study as all data was collected from public sources .
A before and after study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the introduction of Rule 48 on concussion incidence. One season prior to the introduction of Rule 48 and the two subsequent seasons where examined; in the first season Rule 48 was enforced in a narrow manner, and the second season after it was applied more broadly.
OHL data, where a similar policy against checking to the head has been present sincewas employed as a control.
The same weeks were analyzed for both leagues, with an average week consisted of approximately 40 NHL and 25 OHL games.
All available official gamesheets for the selected dates were obtained from www. Penalties were classified as: Player statistics Player statistics were obtained from The Sports Network, and official league websites with fight and salary information www.Canadian Incident Analysis Framework The Framework was developed collaboratively by the Canadian Patient Safety Institute, the Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada, Saskatchewan Health, Patients for Patient Safety Canada (a patient-led program.
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Global incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: both sexes, all ages. The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) varies by geographic region.
The areas with the highest incidence of NHL are North America, Europe, and Australasia, as well as several countries in Africa and North America and Canada Lung cancer is . Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is more common in men than women, and among individuals of Caucasian descent.
The number of new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was per , men and women per year based on cases.