I was largely raised in Ventura, California; my mother ran the household while my father worked to support the family. His entire career was spent working for the federal government, and all but one year was spent working for the Department of Defense. If anything, the political outlook that I was raised with was fairly Cold War, but not too pronounced.
Posted on October 15, by Scott Alexander [Warning: And that as far as I know no historian believes non-historians should never be allowed to talk about history if they try to be careful and cite their sources.
Read at your own risk anyway. The Dark Ages were never a thing. The entire concept is complete and utter horseshit cobbled together by a deluded writer.
Petrarch used it to describe, well, every single thing that had happened since the fall of Rome. Not every scientist was burned at the stake, not everyone thought the world was flat and surrounded by space dragons, and the High Middle Ages were notable for impressive levels of material progress which in some cases outpaced the Classical World and which set the stage for the upcoming Renaissance the continuity thesis.
But I worry that as usualthis corrective to an overblown narrative of darkness has itself been overblown. The period from about to about in Christian Western Europe was marked by profound economic and intellectual decline and stagnation relative to the periods that came before and after it.
To go through the arguments one by one: Many other areas during this period had no warring states at all! The Time of Troubles? Actually, outside of Russia there were no more troubles than usual. The Era of Good Feelings?
Maybe there were a bunch of bad feelings not in the US. Every other historical age name is instantly understood by everyone to refer to both a time and a place.
The only time anyone ever gives anybody else grief over this is when they talk about the Dark Ages. This is an isolated demand for rigor. What about all the great stuff in the Dark Ages? The Song of Roland! All of those are from after the period — AD.
Suppose someone tells you that the middle of America contains the Great Plains, a very flat region. But you know that actually there are lots of tall mountains, like the Rockies.
Have you debunked the so-called Great Plains narrative and proven that its believers are credulous morons? The period after AD did indeed have lots of great accomplishments. I await people admitting that there was no Cold War, because who is George Orwell to think he can just name an era based on what he feels it was like?
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This is another isolated demand for rigor. Historical periods get their names from random individuals reflecting on them; the names catch on if people agree that they fit. The idea of a Dark Age originated with the Tuscan scholar Petrarch in the s.
Writing of the past, he said: Petrarch was the first to give the metaphor secular meaning by reversing its application. In aroundin the conclusion of his epic Africa, he wrote: But for you perhaps, if as I hope and wish you will live long after me, there will follow a better age.
This sleep of forgetfulness will not last for ever. When the darkness has been dispersed, our descendants can come again in the former pure radiance. The new age saeculum which was beginning, for its harshness and barrenness of good could well be called iron, for its baseness and abounding evil leaden, and moreover for its lack of writers dark.
This is not exactly a resounding victory for people claiming that the Dark Age had nothing wrong with it except slightly fewer records. The job of historians is to record, not to judge. So I assume you also raise a fuss whenever someone talks about Alexander the Great?
The Golden Age of Athens? The Five Good Emperors? There were lots of ways they might have been good. That seems pretty light-side to me! Look, a lot of history sucked, and moral judgments are hard.Opsomming.
Uit die literatuur blyk dit dat die strafgerigte benaderings wat tans nog oorwegend in skole gebruik word, nie voldoende is vir die bekamping van eskalerende dissiplineprobleme en die ontwikkeling van verantwoordelike gedrag by leerders nie.
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