In order to do that, it is necessary to set health goals with the patient, and then take steps to achieve those goals. In hospital settings, as nurses, we have proved that when the nurse and client communicate and work together toward mutually selected goals, the goals are more likely to be attained.
Abstract Goal attainment scaling GAS holds promise as an idiographic approach for measuring outcomes of psychosocial interventions in community settings. GAS has been criticized for untested assumptions of scaling level i.
We tested assumptions of equality between GAS descriptions for outcome measurement in a randomized trial i. Results suggest GAS descriptions can be evaluated for equivalency, that teacher collected behavior samples are representative, and that varied sources of behavior samples can be reliably coded.
GAS is a promising measurement approach. Recommendations are provided to ensure methodological quality. However, these systems fall short of what is needed in an assessment system at the level of Sample cases of goal attainment theory individual student—the ability to discern whether or not children with individualized teaching plans are responding to their educational programs i.
For more than 30 years, educational researchers and practitioners have lamented the limitations of traditional assessment methods for monitoring the quality and impact of educational programs of children with disabilities Shuster et al. Similar challenges have been identified by researchers and clinicians from other fields when evaluating the quality and outcomes of their services for persons receiving individualized programming.
Most of our current assessment systems, including curriculum based measurement approaches, continue to assume a nomothetic approach, that all individuals can be assessed along similar dimensions, using similar measures or rating systems.
Nomothetic approaches work well for group comparisons, when everyone can be viewed as or treated as having similar goals as in a class of students all learning the same curriculumbut lack sensitivity for classroom and large scale evaluation approaches to assist teachers and administrators in making data based decisions regarding the effectiveness of their instruction at the student level Quenemoen et al.
Within special education, by definition, each student has an individualized plan, and, by law, the assessment of that plan must take into account the fact that goals and how to rate them are also individualized. This is the definition of an idiographic approach. Progress monitoring systems, such as general curriculum based measurement, also pose limitations due to a lack of standards for the nonacademic skills that often are central to the special education curriculum.
For example, the educational programs of students with autism must include specialized individualized instruction on communication, socialization, and independence NRC —pivotal skills that underlie success in all areas of learning and are associated with positive outcomes, yet difficult to measure.
Alternative measurement approaches are, therefore, necessary and crucial for monitoring progress and measuring outcomes of essential skills for students in special education, such as those with autism. Goal attainment scaling emerged more than 40 years ago as one possible solution to the need for individualized assessment.
Originally developed as a measurement tool first applied in mental health settings Cytrynbaum et al. Since then goal attainment scaling has become a standard outcome measurement approach for school consultation research e.
Although goal attainment scaling holds promise as a substantive and sensitive approach for measuring the outcomes of personalized psychosocial interventions delivered in mental health and educational settings, there are several assumptions of this approach that have not been fully explored empirically, which have served to limit its acceptability and applicability in research and evaluation.
Specific concerns include whether GAS scores are interval or ordinal, are comparable across groups, and are reliable and comparable when people apply different behavioral observation methods e. The first issue, level of measurement, has sparked considerable debate about the computation and statistical analyses of GAS scores.
In contrast, others have argued that parametric methods are appropriate because the metric approximates a normal distribution, and results based on assuming the data are ordinal or interval show negligible differences Cardillo and Smith ; Malec ; Ottenbacher and Cusick GAS scores are most likely to approximate interval ratings when benchmarks are carefully constructed based on clear procedures and include consistent and well defined use of frequency or other qualitative features e.The Theory of Goal Attainment was developed by Imogene King in the early s.
It describes a dynamic, interpersonal relationship in which a patient grows and develops to attain certain life goals.
The Theory of Goal Attainment describes the relationship between people working together to attain a certain goal. In this case, a patient and a nurse, communicate when working together, to achieve a goal, the patient’s health. sample of patients undergoing surgery for TURP UTILIZATION OF KINGÕS INTERACTING SYSTEMS FRAMEWORK AND THEORY OF GOAL ATTAINMENT WITH NEW MULTIDISCIPLINARY MODEL: CLINICAL PATHWAY RESEARCH PAPER theory of goal attainment to assess the benefits of TURP clinical pathways.
Goal attainment scaling: Application, theory and measurement. New York, NY: Psychology Press. [Google Scholar]), each goal was measured on a five-point scale (−2 to +2) reflecting varying expectations of success over the course of intervention, as defined collaboratively by the client–practitioner dyad.
Theory of Goal Attainment and Nursing Process Assessment The nurse brings special knowledge and skills whereas client brings knowledge of self and perception of problems of concern, to this interaction.
Using Goal Attainment Theory, we try to understand them so we can have a good relationship with them. Patients and nurses communicate with each other to achieve goals. Once we have a good working relationship with our patients, we are able to intervene more effectively.