A user agent is not required to conform to the entirety of another specification in order to conform to this specification, but it MUST conform to the specific parts of any other specification which are called out in this specification e. This specification defines several classes of conformance for different user agentsspecifications, and content authors:
Many owners welcome substitutions. Since time is money in construction, schedule is very important to owners, so even a substitution that costs more money but saves time is likely to be favorably received by an owner.
Owners wish that more architects and specifiers understood the overall impact of substitutions, time- and money- wise.
The specifier pointed out that for private work, substitutions can be good because they give the design team an opportunity to evaluate things they may not have evaluated when they first prepared the documents.
The subcontractor thinks that substitutions are an opportunity for the owner to get a better value. Subcontractors, who are specialists in their specification writing architecture, can keep up, and may be able specification writing architecture offer better solutions.
The specifier reminded us that many owners, especially in the public sector, want what they know has worked, and do not want substitutions. Owners such as municipalities, public school districts, and universities may own and maintain many buildings, and need maintenance procedures to be the same from building to building.
Substitutions scare architects, and for good reason. Architects worry about how many details in the drawings will be affected — and will no longer be correct — because of a particular substitution.
And when design changes have to be made due to a substitution, it is hard to be sure one has gone back and checked every possible thing that could be affected, as was done when the design was first developed.
Architects also wonder if the owner is getting something of a lesser value on the project when a substitution has been accepted because the owner was attracted to cost savings. The architect knows that the owner is happy to be getting something cheaper, but the architect worries that the owner is giving up something of greater value or performance the specified itemand the general contractor or subcontractor is the one actually saving more money on the substitution.
Panelists agreed that different team members on a design and construction project do not agree about exactly what a substitution is.
The general contractor pointed out that team members treat substitutions differently depending on the project delivery method. The general contractor then has to decide whether or not to use the price associated with that substitution.
On negotiated projects, the general contractor wants to see substitutions, get pricing, explain to the owner and the architect that if this product is used instead of a specified product, the owner can save money, or the schedule can be shortened.
The specifier of course read us the definition of a substitution from MasterSpec. We agree that a substitution is a change, but what kind of a change, and how a substitution is supposed to be evaluated, are where the differences of opinion and misunderstandings occur.
The owner and design team need to define how casual or formal the process for evaluating substitution requests is. The specifier believes that part of his job is to define that evaluation process succinctly.
The subcontractor likes the phrase even less than architects. He described it as two words in a specification that make subcontractors want to turn away and run as fast as they can in another direction.
How is a sub supposed to know what is considered to be equal? Separate from the pricing issue is a service issue; the subcontractor mentioned that some vendors may have more leverage to get replacement products out on the jobsite faster than others. The earlier a substitution request is made, the better.
Everyone generally agreed that the earlier a substitution request is made, the better. Procedural requirements for substitutions that happen after the bid are part of the contract documents. MasterSpec specifications software suggests that all substitutions for convenience should be received within a certain number of days after the construction contract is signed.
He said that as long as substitutions are decided upon prior to signing the contract, substitutions are fine. But even more important than timing is that the general contractor should actually review the substitution request before sending it on to architect and not just stamp it and pass it on without actually reviewing it.
The best results, best pricing, best performance, best product can come out of collaboration. A guest attending the meeting asked how we get rid of this substitution process.
The subcontractor on the panel said that the only way to get rid of the substitution process is to write performance specifications instead of specifying products, manufacturers, or descriptions that point to specific manufacturers.
Anything that can meet the required results, and whose compliance with the required results can be verified, meets the spec. In performance specifying, although a product is not named in the spec, it meets the spec if it meets the required results indicated in the spec.NFV in ETSI.
Founded in November by seven of the world's leading telecoms network operators ISG NFV became the home of the Industry Specification Group for NFV. Specification Writing - Fundamentals of Structure LanguageFundamentals of Structure, Language What is a Specification DocumentWhat is a Specification Document • Specifications are one of the Administrative writing the specification.
XML Schema Status. XML Schema (in two parts) is a W3C Recommendation. It is intended to be mostly compatible with XML Schema and to have approximately the same scope, but also to fix bugs and make whatever improvements we can, consistent with the constraints on scope and compatibility.
A specification often refers to a set of documented specification writing itself is undertaken by the architect and the various engineers or by specialist specification writers. Specification writing is often a distinct a nationwide American professional society of Architects whose purpose is to improve residential architecture.
Purpose of this Course Understanding Specifications What is a Specification Document Contract Basics Specification Writing Specification Language. A functional specification (also, functional spec, specs, functional specifications document (FSD), functional requirements specification) in systems engineering and software development is a document that specifies the functions that a system or component must perform (often part of a requirements specification) (ISO/IEC/IEEE )..
The documentation typically describes what is needed.