Cultural competence in healthcare The provision of culturally tailored health care can improve patient outcomes. InCalifornia passed Assembly Bill that requires patient-related continuing medical education courses in California medical school to incorporate cultural and linguistic competence training in order to qualify for certification credits. It is impossible to refer to "a Hispanic-American perspective" or to "a single Latino culture".
While many business transactions make economic sense, the ability to successfully fulfill profitable relationships often depends on being able to reconcile international differences arising from separate cultures. Understanding cultural differences is an initial step, but managers also need to engage in learning processes to develop international cultural competence.
Cross-cultural training enables managers to acquire both knowledge and skills to fulfill the role of cultural agents. Advancing cultural intelligence and international cultural competence is critical to the future success of managers and leaders working in a global context.
A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions, is the "patterned ways of thinking, feeling, and reacting, acquired and transmitted mainly by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiments in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional i.
In international management research, Hofstede defined culture as "…the collective programming of the mind which distinguishes the members of one group or category of people from those of another" Many other definitions of culture are available.
Common elements in the definitions are the shared and dynamic nature revolving around norms, values, and beliefs that are expressed in different behaviors, artifacts, and interactions.
Within the context of international business, culture involves multiple levels that span from broad to narrow and different dimensions. On a broad level, supranational culture differences span multiple countries and include regional, ethnic, religious, and linguistic dimensions.
On a national level, governments create sovereign boundaries to distinguish different nations with political and legal regulatory systems.
In the business literature, most research on culture uses the nation-state as a proxy for culture. Other levels of analysis for culture include subcultures, as well as professional and organizational groups.
In addition to various levels, culture also involves different dimensions. Four major classifications schemes provide frame-works for identifying international differences in culture.
First, anthropologist Edward T. Second, Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck developed a cultural orientations framework that identified six issues, with variations in each one: He identified four major dimensions of cultural values—individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity-femininity—along with a fifth dimension subsequently identified as Confucian Dynamism, or long-term orientation.
The four different classifications provide different and overlapping approaches to organize the many complex dimensions that make up culture. A major premise underlying the need for organizing different cultural dimensions is a means to avoid costly mistakes in conducting international business.
The different classifications provide a map to make sense of the complex nature of culture. Important caveats to keep in mind are that each classification is not exhaustive and each one originates from a particular cultural perspective. Managers have to engage in learning processes with cross-cultural training to develop both cultural intelligence and international cultural competence.
Cross-cultural training also needs to be coordinated in multiple phases to maximize the learning effectiveness for individual managers and organizational performance. The three phases are predeparture orientation, in-country socialization, and country exit debriefing. The exit debriefing is important for organizational learning, and a knowledge management system can support the capture of the cultural lessons that are learned.
Kim and Ofori-Dankwa described four major delivery methods for cross-cultural training: The intellectual model involves the traditional classroom approach of general readings and lecture. The area simulation model incorporates culture-specific activities e. The self-awareness training method focuses on having participants identify their strengths and weaknesses in dealing with different cultures, especially taken-for-granted assumptions about intercultural situations.The question of how cultural differences impact the practice of CBT has been highlighted by a special series on cultural considerations in using acceptance and.
IN TR OD UC TIO N The material in this book is a summary drawn from several years of study and experience in East Africa. I hope it will help people from a European cultural background to learn about Africa. This material is also available in a PDF format: Cultural diversity: Suggestions for families and educators Suggestions for families.
Parenting across cultures can sometimes be challenging, especially when the values and expectations of one culture are different to those from another.
Jun 30, · In a world where even the most far-flung places show the movies we see in Britain and the United States, where the same – mainly western – music pours from radios and personal devices and.
One cultural perspective study was conducted with Americans who had limited cross-cultural experience, and no specific experience with Afghan culture. In the study, these Americans were asked to take the perspectives of Afghan characters in a set of narratives.
Assessments are used to gain useful information about test-takers' knowledge, skills and progress. Sometimes, however, the results of these.